Much more goes into building a yacht hull than simply what you see on the surface. Whether you are interested in fishing boats, a pontoon boat, a superyacht, a flat bottomed boat, a planing boat, a steel hull trawler or want a displacement hull or semi-displacement hull, a lot of thought and effort goes into the hull design. The hull design will dictate how your yacht moves through the water and handles both calm water and choppy water, ensuring you have a smoother ride during your time on board. There are a variety of boat hulls you will come across when looking for your next boat or yacht. From the hull designs and hull shapes to the hull materials used, there are many options.
There are five common types of yacht hull materials that have been used for decades or even centuries in yacht construction including Ferro-cement, wood, steel hull yachts, aluminum yacht hulls, and fiberglass hull yachts. This list is not exhaustive as the yachting industry is constantly evolving and looking to create a more efficient yacht hull, and lessen the carbon footprint of yachts, these hull materials will grow and change over time.
Let’s look at the common yacht hull types that have been the most widely used for so many years, what type of yacht they are used in, and any hull maintenance issues to consider.
What is a Ferro-Cement Hull Yacht?
If you are one of those adventurous people who can construct anything from a paper ship to a yacht, maybe Ferro-cement is a hull material you know well. As its name describes, this is a hull form made of cement/concrete and iron. The materials are relatively cheap. You will rarely or probably never see a boat built in a shipyard with a hull of this material and it is one of the less common types of hull materials you’ll encounter.
- Ferro-cement is usually used by people who decide to build their own yacht and have time on their hands.
- Although using this material might save you cash, it is quite problematic as it is highly dependent on the way the hull shape has been constructed (it is good to be laid over at one go, which is a tough job) and the quality of materials.
Often, there is water reaching the iron, which initiates corrosion, and as a result, this can sink your boat and lead to catastrophic results. Take into account that Ferro-cemented hull boats can be hardly insured as companies don’t accept this hull material as a reliable one.
What is a Wood Hull Yacht?
Wood is the material of classic yachts. A well-maintained wooden yacht turns heads. But boats with wooden hull designs do need special attention. The material has been used for centuries. It is the only natural eco-friendly material still used in the construction of vessels. These ships were the real strength of many empires when conquering the world. Wood is an excellent type of boat hull and a reliable one if well cared for. It is important to use the right wood for the right area of your boat. There are soft and hardwoods, which perform differently.
- Softwood usually grows faster and has its strength throughout the whole stem, making them more suitable for masts.
- Hardwoods like mahogany would do great in saltwater due to the antiseptic water quality and would last for decades, but when left in freshwater, the result can be awful because freshwater leads to rot and decay of the material.
As it has the quality to absorb moisture, rot is the main problem of wooden hulls. There are also marine creatures that use the wooden surface for food.
However, nowadays, these hulls are getting painted or covered with Gelcoat. Also, during the construction process, the pieces get connected with epoxy, and in the end, the hull is covered in layers of woven glass rovings and epoxy, which protect the hull design from moisture. As with all hull types, regular maintenance is essential in maintaining the integrity and lifetime of the wooden yacht.
What is a Steel Hull Yacht?
Steel hull yachts are still one of the most popular yacht hull materials used in constructing superyachts, steel hull motor yachts, ships, steel hull explorer yachts, and in general full-displacement hulls. Steel is hard-core.
- It is a reliable yacht construction material that has proven itself throughout the years.
- Steel hull yachts have the best ability to withstand a collision.
- Even if they hit a floating object, the chance to keep floating without a crack in the hull is higher than the rest of the hull materials, still offering a smoother ride than other materials.
As a result, steel hull explorer yachts and steel hull expedition yachts are the most common types of yacht you’ll see venturing into polar regions, many coming with “ice-class” certification to withstand the battering the hull form takes when cruising through icy waters.
The problem steel hulls have is the chemical corrosion caused by the saltwater.
This is the reason why steel hulls need to be protected with water-resistant paint, where epoxy would be the best option. Yacht hull maintenance is essential so be sure to bear in mind the additional annual costs involved with maintaining your steel yacht hull along with your other regular refit plans.
What is an Aluminum Hull Yacht?
In comparison to steel, an aluminum yacht hull has a better strength to weight ratio. However, it is harder to weld when compared to steel.
- It is more expensive, but it looks great and is a good construction material for yachts that need to be reliable and fast.
- Aluminum yacht hulls are a very common type of material used when constructing sleek semi displacement aluminum hull motor yachts where speed is important, as well as comfort.
Offering a smoother ride, and the ability to move through the water efficiently, you’ll often see aluminum hull motor yachts available on the brokerage and new build market. From day boats to sailing yachts, aluminum is a popular hull material.
Although aluminum might not need cover paint as it doesn’t get damaged by water, it suffers from electrolytic and galvanic corrosion when in touch with metals different from aluminum or when electrical systems are not installed the right way or don’t have the right design for the vessel.
This is why aluminum yacht hulls need zinc anodes to fight against galvanic corrosion. Being prepared with an annual maintenance and refit plan will help to increase the longevity of the hull and the vessel overall.
What is a Fiberglass Hull Yacht?
Last but definitely the most popular yacht hull material today is the fiberglass hull yacht or the so-called GRP – glass-reinforced plastic. This is the most common material for production boats. To get the material, one basically melts sand and creates a glass fiber from it, which in combination with polyester resin, results in fiberglass. The result is a light and strong material that has a wide range of uses, including boat hulls. These types of boat hulls should be protected with a gel coat or paint.
- Fiberglass hull yachts are popular with both displacement hulls and semi displacement hulls.
- They offer a hull shape that is both solidly constructed.
- Fiberglass hull yachts are able to achieve excellent speeds in both calm water and choppy water, or navigating sharp turns as they move through the water.
Some of the disadvantages of the fiberglass hulls are osmosis, which might result in greater problems if not fixed on time, and the fact that gel coat evades under the sunlight.
Despite those issues, fiberglass hull yachts have proven themselves reliable if well maintained and used in clear waters. Carrying out regular annual maintenance and refit works on your fiberglass or GRP hull will be essential in maintaining the yacht over its lifetime.
Today, these five types of boat hulls are not the only ones used in the marine industry. There is always a new invention, a new alloy, or a new fiber-based material with better qualities than the old-school ones.
Whenever deciding what hull material to choose for your yacht, consider how much you want to spend, where you will use the yacht, and the time you will need to spend maintaining it. Regardless of whether you are in the market for a flat bottomed boat like a pontoon boat, or want a sport planing boat, a sport fishing boat, or something larger and grander like a steel hull motor yacht, the material you choose for your hull shape can alter your yachting experience immensely. Do your research.
The hull shape and hull form you decide on, as well as the materials used can impact your overall yachting experience – from how it performs in calm water and choppy water to the way the yacht moves through the water, handles sharp turns or offers a smoother ride over others is something to consider when determining the right yacht hull materials and style for your needs.
For all of the yacht hull materials mentioned, you will need to consider what your annual refit and maintenance costs will be and whether you can afford these. On average, we recommend budgeting around 10 – 20% of the total cost of the yacht for your annual maintenance costs every year. Be sure to factor this into your starting budget when looking for your next yacht.